Xbox Adaptive Controller

Este artigo é a parte 1 de 4 da série  Xbox Adaptive Controller

I got one!

Yes, I bought a Microsoft device. A Xbox Adaptive Controller.

Yes, it is from Microsoft and no I don’t have a Xbox nor even a Windows PC. But it is also a USB HID device.

When it was announced, I liked the simplicity of the idea: a USB controller with lots of digital inputs and also some analog inputs with pretty common connectors: 3.5 mm audio jacks! (yes, TLG, common connectors!!!). And although not officially announced as so, it was not a closed device – it was meant to extend the gaming experience and not only for Microsoft systems.

And it also reminded me the LEGO DACTA Interface A but with inputs only, no outputs.

So now that it is available I ordered one. It arrived today… and linux thinks it is some kind of joystick.

dmsg:

usb 1-6.2: new full-speed USB device number 9 using xhci_hcd
usb 1-6.2: New USB device found, idVendor=045e, idProduct=0b0a
usb 1-6.2: New USB device strings: Mfr=1, Product=2, SerialNumber=3
usb 1-6.2: Product: Controller
usb 1-6.2: Manufacturer: Microsoft
usb 1-6.2: SerialNumber: 3032353630303131363937383235
input: Generic X-Box pad as /devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:14.0/usb1/1-6/1-6.2/1-6.2:1.0/input/input23
usbcore: registered new interface driver xpad

ls -l /dev/input/by-id/ :

lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 out 1 14:56 usb-Microsoft_Controller_3032353630303131363937383235-event-joystick -> ../event22
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 6 out 1 14:56 usb-Microsoft_Controller_3032353630303131363937383235-joystick -> ../js0

Since I got a joystick (‘/dev/input/js0’) let’s test it with jstest:

jstest /dev/input/js0

Axes: 0: 0 1: 0 2:-32767 3: 0 4: 0 5:-32767 6: 0 7: 0 Buttons: 0:off 1:off 2:off 3:off 4:off 5:off 6:off 7:off 8:off 9:off 10:off

The black cross-shaped pad is mapped to Axle 6 (Left: -32767 / Right: 32767) and Axle 7 (Up: -32767 / Down: 32767).

The ‘View’ button is Button 6, the ‘Menu’ button is Button 7 and the big black round buttons (‘A’ and ‘B’) are Button 0 and Button 1. No action detected when pressing the ‘Xbox’ and the ‘Profile’ buttons.

Now if I connect a 3.5 mm jack to the first plug (with the symbol of an arrow to the left and a cross) and shunt it I get ‘-32767’ at Axle 6… the same as pressing the left part of the black cross pad. In fact, the 4 first jacks are mapped to Axle 6 and 7 (left, up, down and right).

So I can connect any kind of switch to these jacks. Including, of course, LEGO switches 🙂

And, of course, I can also connect the XAC to the LEGO MINDSTORMS EV3 running ev3dev.

So what crazy HID shall we create?

Note: the XAC also has Bluetooth. It announces as “Xbox Adaptive Controller”  and I can pair it with my Ubuntu but it shows as disconnected (it does connect but when browsing the services it immediately disconnects). Microsoft states that BT only works with Windows 10 so I might need to sweat a bit more before having a wireless controller.

RTFM!

Este artigo é a parte 2 de 4 da série  Xbox Adaptive Controller

Great work Microsoft!

I now have 19 inputs that I can use with whatever I want.

Digital inputs are easy: just connect a switch. Any kind of switch, including LEGO RCX touch sensors.

But 4 of them can be also be analog… and no documentation at all to tell me what voltage levels I can use and if there is any kind of internal protection.

Bluetooth working

Este artigo é a parte 3 de 4 da série  Xbox Adaptive Controller

XAC working with bluetooth on my Ubuntu 18.04 laptop.

Only needed to edit ‘sys/module/bluetooth/parameters/disable_ertm’ replacing ‘N’ with ‘1’ or ‘Y’

After a few attempts of pairing my connection kept stable.

dmesg:

Bluetooth: HIDP (Human Interface Emulation) ver 1.2
Bluetooth: HIDP socket layer initialized
hid-generic 0005:045E:0B0C.0006: unknown main item tag 0x0
input: Xbox Adaptive Controller as /devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:14.0/usb1/1-8/1-8:1.0/bluetooth/hci0/hci0:256/0005:045E:0B0C.0006/input/input23
hid-generic 0005:045E:0B0C.0006: input,hidraw3: BLUETOOTH HID v9.03 Gamepad [Xbox Adaptive Controller] on 34:f3:9a:88:60:7a
Bluetooth: hci0: last event is not cmd complete (0x0f)

a lot more of those hci 0x0f errors will keep appearing but connection holds.

Also got a ‘/dev/input/js0’ device but with much more Axles (15) and Buttons (31). But buttons seem duplicated – for instance the big round button ‘A’ is both Button 0 and Button 15 (previously it was only Button 0).

Nice!

Note 1: this workaround is not permanent.
Note 2: according to wikipedia, ERPM stands for ‘enhanced retransmission mode‘ and is ‘an improved version of retransmission and flow control modes’. Several posts related to using Xbox bluetooth controllers in linux suggest disabling it.

XAC with EV3

Este artigo é a parte 4 de 4 da série  Xbox Adaptive Controller

Running ev3dev (‘4.14.71-ev3dev-2.3.0-ev3 (stretch)’.

BT works, just needed to edit ‘/sys/module/bluetooth/parameters/disable_ertm’.

dmesg:

Bluetooth: HIDP (Human Interface Emulation) ver 1.2
Bluetooth: HIDP socket layer initialized
hid-generic 0005:045E:0B0C.0002: unknown main item tag 0x0
Bluetooth: received HCILL_WAKE_UP_IND in state 2
input: Xbox Adaptive Controller as /devices/platform/soc@1c00000/serial8250.2/tty/ttyS2/hci0/hci0:1/0005:045E:0B0C.0002/input/input3
hid-generic 0005:045E:0B0C.0002: input,hidraw1: BLUETOOTH HID v9.03 Gamepad [Xbox Adaptive Controller] on a0:e6:f8:60:16:60

I don’t have a ‘/dev/input/js0’  because ev3dev ‘joydev’ has been deprecated.

But I can still read it with ‘cat /dev/input/event3’ but since it looks like garbage its better to use ‘evtest’:

No device specified, trying to scan all of /dev/input/event*
Not running as root, no devices may be available.
Available devices:
/dev/input/event0: LEGO MINDSTORMS EV3 Speaker
/dev/input/event1: EV3 Brick Buttons
/dev/input/event2: C-Media USB Headphone Set 
/dev/input/event3: Xbox Adaptive Controller
Select the device event number [0-3]: 3
Input driver version is 1.0.1
Input device ID: bus 0x5 vendor 0x45e product 0xb0c version 0x903
Input device name: "Xbox Adaptive Controller"
Supported events:
  Event type 0 (EV_SYN)
  Event type 1 (EV_KEY)
    Event code 1 (KEY_ESC)
    Event code 2 (KEY_1)
    Event code 3 (KEY_2)
    Event code 4 (KEY_3)
    Event code 5 (KEY_4)
    Event code 6 (KEY_5)
    Event code 7 (KEY_6)
    Event code 8 (KEY_7)
    Event code 9 (KEY_8)
    Event code 10 (KEY_9)
    Event code 11 (KEY_0)
    Event code 12 (KEY_MINUS)
    Event code 13 (KEY_EQUAL)
    Event code 14 (KEY_BACKSPACE)
    Event code 15 (KEY_TAB)
    Event code 16 (KEY_Q)
    Event code 17 (KEY_W)
    Event code 18 (KEY_E)
    Event code 19 (KEY_R)
    Event code 20 (KEY_T)
    Event code 21 (KEY_Y)
    Event code 22 (KEY_U)
    Event code 23 (KEY_I)
    Event code 24 (KEY_O)
    Event code 25 (KEY_P)
    Event code 26 (KEY_LEFTBRACE)
    Event code 27 (KEY_RIGHTBRACE)
    Event code 28 (KEY_ENTER)
    Event code 29 (KEY_LEFTCTRL)
    Event code 30 (KEY_A)
    Event code 31 (KEY_S)
    Event code 32 (KEY_D)
    Event code 33 (KEY_F)
    Event code 34 (KEY_G)
    Event code 35 (KEY_H)
    Event code 36 (KEY_J)
    Event code 37 (KEY_K)
    Event code 38 (KEY_L)
    Event code 39 (KEY_SEMICOLON)
    Event code 40 (KEY_APOSTROPHE)
    Event code 41 (KEY_GRAVE)
    Event code 42 (KEY_LEFTSHIFT)
    Event code 43 (KEY_BACKSLASH)
    Event code 44 (KEY_Z)
    Event code 45 (KEY_X)
    Event code 46 (KEY_C)
    Event code 47 (KEY_V)
    Event code 48 (KEY_B)
    Event code 49 (KEY_N)
    Event code 50 (KEY_M)
    Event code 51 (KEY_COMMA)
    Event code 52 (KEY_DOT)
    Event code 53 (KEY_SLASH)
    Event code 54 (KEY_RIGHTSHIFT)
    Event code 55 (KEY_KPASTERISK)
    Event code 56 (KEY_LEFTALT)
    Event code 57 (KEY_SPACE)
    Event code 58 (KEY_CAPSLOCK)
    Event code 59 (KEY_F1)
    Event code 60 (KEY_F2)
    Event code 61 (KEY_F3)
    Event code 62 (KEY_F4)
    Event code 63 (KEY_F5)
    Event code 64 (KEY_F6)
    Event code 65 (KEY_F7)
    Event code 66 (KEY_F8)
    Event code 67 (KEY_F9)
    Event code 68 (KEY_F10)
    Event code 69 (KEY_NUMLOCK)
    Event code 70 (KEY_SCROLLLOCK)
    Event code 71 (KEY_KP7)
    Event code 72 (KEY_KP8)
    Event code 73 (KEY_KP9)
    Event code 74 (KEY_KPMINUS)
    Event code 75 (KEY_KP4)
    Event code 76 (KEY_KP5)
    Event code 77 (KEY_KP6)
    Event code 78 (KEY_KPPLUS)
    Event code 79 (KEY_KP1)
    Event code 80 (KEY_KP2)
    Event code 81 (KEY_KP3)
    Event code 82 (KEY_KP0)
    Event code 83 (KEY_KPDOT)
    Event code 86 (KEY_102ND)
    Event code 87 (KEY_F11)
    Event code 88 (KEY_F12)
    Event code 96 (KEY_KPENTER)
    Event code 97 (KEY_RIGHTCTRL)
    Event code 98 (KEY_KPSLASH)
    Event code 99 (KEY_SYSRQ)
    Event code 100 (KEY_RIGHTALT)
    Event code 102 (KEY_HOME)
    Event code 103 (KEY_UP)
    Event code 104 (KEY_PAGEUP)
    Event code 105 (KEY_LEFT)
    Event code 106 (KEY_RIGHT)
    Event code 107 (KEY_END)
    Event code 108 (KEY_DOWN)
    Event code 109 (KEY_PAGEDOWN)
    Event code 110 (KEY_INSERT)
    Event code 111 (KEY_DELETE)
    Event code 119 (KEY_PAUSE)
    Event code 125 (KEY_LEFTMETA)
    Event code 126 (KEY_RIGHTMETA)
    Event code 127 (KEY_COMPOSE)
    Event code 158 (KEY_BACK)
    Event code 172 (KEY_HOMEPAGE)
    Event code 240 (KEY_UNKNOWN)
    Event code 241 (KEY_VIDEO_NEXT)
    Event code 304 (BTN_SOUTH)
    Event code 305 (BTN_EAST)
    Event code 306 (BTN_C)
    Event code 307 (BTN_NORTH)
    Event code 308 (BTN_WEST)
    Event code 309 (BTN_Z)
    Event code 310 (BTN_TL)
    Event code 311 (BTN_TR)
    Event code 312 (BTN_TL2)
    Event code 313 (BTN_TR2)
    Event code 314 (BTN_SELECT)
    Event code 315 (BTN_START)
    Event code 316 (BTN_MODE)
    Event code 317 (BTN_THUMBL)
    Event code 318 (BTN_THUMBR)
    Event code 319 (?)
    Event code 410 (KEY_SHUFFLE)
    Event code 704 (BTN_TRIGGER_HAPPY1)
    Event code 705 (BTN_TRIGGER_HAPPY2)
    Event code 706 (BTN_TRIGGER_HAPPY3)
    Event code 707 (BTN_TRIGGER_HAPPY4)
    Event code 708 (BTN_TRIGGER_HAPPY5)
    Event code 709 (BTN_TRIGGER_HAPPY6)
    Event code 710 (BTN_TRIGGER_HAPPY7)
    Event code 711 (BTN_TRIGGER_HAPPY8)
    Event code 712 (BTN_TRIGGER_HAPPY9)
    Event code 713 (BTN_TRIGGER_HAPPY10)
    Event code 714 (BTN_TRIGGER_HAPPY11)
    Event code 715 (BTN_TRIGGER_HAPPY12)
    Event code 716 (BTN_TRIGGER_HAPPY13)
    Event code 717 (BTN_TRIGGER_HAPPY14)
  Event type 3 (EV_ABS)
    Event code 0 (ABS_X)
      Value  32768
      Min        0
      Max    65535
      Fuzz     255
      Flat    4095
    Event code 1 (ABS_Y)
      Value  32767
      Min        0
      Max    65535
      Fuzz     255
      Flat    4095
    Event code 2 (ABS_Z)
      Value  32768
      Min        0
      Max    65535
      Fuzz     255
      Flat    4095
    Event code 5 (ABS_RZ)
      Value  32767
      Min        0
      Max    65535
      Fuzz     255
      Flat    4095
    Event code 7 (ABS_RUDDER)
      Value      0
      Min        1
      Max        8
    Event code 9 (ABS_GAS)
      Value      0
      Min        0
      Max     1023
      Fuzz       3
      Flat      63
    Event code 10 (ABS_BRAKE)
      Value      0
      Min        0
      Max     1023
      Fuzz       3
      Flat      63
    Event code 16 (ABS_HAT0X)
      Value      0
      Min       -1
      Max        1
    Event code 17 (ABS_HAT0Y)
      Value      0
      Min       -1
      Max        1
    Event code 40 (ABS_MISC)
      Value  32768
      Min        0
      Max    65535
      Fuzz     255
      Flat    4095
    Event code 41 (?)
      Value  32767
      Min        0
      Max    65535
      Fuzz     255
      Flat    4095
    Event code 42 (?)
      Value  32768
      Min        0
      Max    65535
      Fuzz     255
      Flat    4095
    Event code 43 (?)
      Value  32767
      Min        0
      Max    65535
      Fuzz     255
      Flat    4095
    Event code 44 (?)
      Value      0
      Min        0
      Max     1023
      Fuzz       3
      Flat      63
    Event code 45 (?)
      Value      0
      Min        0
      Max     1023
      Fuzz       3
      Flat      63
  Event type 4 (EV_MSC)
    Event code 4 (MSC_SCAN)
Key repeat handling:
  Repeat type 20 (EV_REP)
    Repeat code 0 (REP_DELAY)
      Value    250
    Repeat code 1 (REP_PERIOD)
      Value     33
Properties:
Testing ... (interrupt to exit)

Pressing the big button ‘A’:

Event: time 1538574732.484613, type 4 (EV_MSC), code 4 (MSC_SCAN), value 90001
Event: time 1538574732.484613, type 1 (EV_KEY), code 304 (BTN_SOUTH), value 1
Event: time 1538574732.484613, type 4 (EV_MSC), code 4 (MSC_SCAN), value 90010
Event: time 1538574732.484613, type 1 (EV_KEY), code 319 (?), value 1
Event: time 1538574732.484613, -------------- SYN_REPORT ------------
Event: time 1538574732.574441, type 4 (EV_MSC), code 4 (MSC_SCAN), value 90001
Event: time 1538574732.574441, type 1 (EV_KEY), code 304 (BTN_SOUTH), value 0
Event: time 1538574732.574441, type 4 (EV_MSC), code 4 (MSC_SCAN), value 90010
Event: time 1538574732.574441, type 1 (EV_KEY), code 319 (?), value 0
Event: time 1538574732.574441, -------------- SYN_REPORT ------------

So it is a bit less easy than with Ubuntu but we’ll get somewhere.